India’s Army Actions During Governor-Generalship of Lord Mountbatten

1. Ruler of princely state Gujarat Kathiawar announced accession with Pakistan. India attacked Gujarat Kathiawar and occupied it per force.

2. India attacked State in Southern India, Hyderabad Sikanderabad, and occupied per force.

3. State Jammu Kashmir was a collection of 7 states Jammu, Kashmir, Poonch, Gilgit, Baltistan, Laddakh, Bhadarwah and Jenani.

After August 15, 1947 Jammu Police searched houses of Muslims and took away even kitchen knives if blade was 5 inch or longer. Starage enough that houses of Hindus were not searched.
Trained armed groups of Rashtaria Sevak Sang, Hindu Mahasabha and Akali Dal protected by Indian army started entering Jammu through Gurdaspur and Kathuwa soon after declaration of Independence of Pakistan and India (August 15, 1947). *This passage to enter Jammu was provided by Boundary Commission of Sir Cyril Radcliffe.*
These India trained terrorists started killing Muslims in villages of Jammu, looting their houses and putting their crops on fire.
Later, regular Indian Army also entered Jammu and started giving coverage to Hindu and Sikh terrorists in killing Muslims, looting and arson. By end of September, 1947 when enough Indian army had enter and taken over control of borders of Jammu a& Kashmir, killing of Muslims in urban areas of Jammu started.

During September, 1947 Muslims of the state army and citizens in Gilgit and Baltistan announced their loyalty to Pakistan. They took over control of Gilgit & Baltistan and raised flag of Pakistan on the Governor House. Then they sent a messenger to Mr Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi to send his representative to run the government there. The representative named Political Agent, arrived during first week of November, 1947 and took over the control.

By November 07, 1947 around 300,000 Muslims men, women and children had been killed in Jammu.

In the meantime, on October 27, 1947 Muslims of Jammu Kashmir started struggle against Indian army by snatching weapons from them and killing them. Lord Mountbatten, who had been cunningly appointed by the Indian government as Governor General of India, called fighter planes from Burma and bombarded the Kashmir villages to kill the freedom fighters. Muslim freedom fighter took over control of Muzaffarabd, Mirpur, Bhimber and part of Poonch, etc. with support of the citizens and announced accession to Pakistan

Visualising that the freedom struggle of Muslims was getting out of control of Indian Army, Sheikh Abdullah (who was in prison since 1934) wastaken out and made Prime Minister of Jammu Kashmir. Then Indian Prime Minister Nehru flew to UNO headquarter and begged for seize fire and accepted to allow fare and free elections in Jammu Kashmir to allow the people to join country of their choice, Pakistan or India which India is denying till today and world powers and UNO are sleeping on it because it is for Muslims. Had it been in favour of non-Mulim, world powers would have jumped in and UNO would have passed resolution to allow world powers a military action.

Advertisements

Conspiracy of Duo – Mountbatten, Nehru

This is continuation of “Partition of India – How and Why” published on March 12 2018.
Due to high fever, severe cough and Flu, I was down from March 20 t0 29 2018, thus the delay in publishing the today’s article.

Punjab could be divided into 5 areas on basis of Muslim population

1. West, which was above 80% Muslim (Green and Dark Green).
2. Center-West, which was 60 to 80% Muslim (Blue, Light Blue and Pink).
3. Center-East, with no obvious majority religion (Brown and Yellow).
4. Southeast, what is now Haryana with Hindu majority, but it was relatively narrow, and the communal split was Hindu / Muslim, with few Sikhs in the mix. Delhi is included in zone 4, because communally and culturally, it was similar to the nearby parts of the Punjab.
5. Which now is called Himachal Pradesh was almost exclusively Hindu (Grey).

In June 1947 to determine which areas on ground should make part of each country, Britain appointed Sir Cyril Radcliffe to chair Boundary Commission for Bengal and Punjab. Sir Cyril Radcliffe arrived in India on 8th July 1947. Instead of announcing the result before august 14, 1947, he announced it on August 17, 1947 and, violating even the division on the district basis, divided Muslim majority Assam as well as a 70% Muslim majority Gurdaspur (Punjab). Gurdaspur was divided to provide India land passage to Jammu Kashmir.
Map showing the divide between Pakistan and India as result of Boundary Commission’s decision. Green given to Pakistan and the rest to India
Strange thing is that 3 Muslim majority districts in central India were made part of India on the plea that those were in Hindu vicinity.
It is said that Lord Mountbatten corroborated with Hindu leaders more than his predecessors and acceded out of the way to demands of Mr Nehru, courtesy close friendship of Mr Nehru with Lady Edwina Mountbatten (wife of the Viceroy). To know detail, please, click on the following links one after the other.
https://www.quora.com/What-exactly-happened-between-Nehru-and-Lady-Mountbatten

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1216186/The-shocking-love-triangle-Lord-Mountbatten-wife-founder-modern-India.html

Partition of India – How and Why

Formulated at the initiative of Clement Richard Attlee (PM 1945-1951), Cabinet Mission of 1946 aimed at transfer of power from the British Government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India’s unity and granting it independence. The British wanted to keep India and its Army united, so as to keep it in their system of imperial defence even after granting it independence.

The plan was:
1. The Muslim-majority provinces would be grouped, with Sindh, Punjab, Baluchistan and North West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) forming Group-1-a, and Bengal and Assam would form Group-1-b.
2. The Hindu-majority provinces in central and southern India would form Group-2.
3. The central government, stationed in Delhi, would be empowered to handle nationwide affairs, such as defence, currency and diplomacy, and the rest of powers and responsibility would belong to the provinces, coordinated by groups.
4. Independent states to decide their future according to will of their people. States where Muslim majority was over 70% were (a) Jammu Kashmir (including Jammu, Kashmir, Poonch, Baltistan, Gilgit, Astor, Laddakh, Bhaderwah and Chenani) in the North-West India. (b) Hyderabad and Sikanderabad in South India

Elections to assembly in India were held during 1945 -1946 in which Muslim League won 30 out of 30 seats of Muslim majority areas getting 90% votes while Gongress won 57 out of 60 seats reserved. In Provincial assemblies Muslim League won 54 out of 66 seats in Upper Province, 13 out of 14 in Central Province, 4 out of 4 in Urissa, 30 out of 30 in Bombay (now Mumbai), 33 out of 34 in Assam, 33 out of 40 in Behar. In developed areas of Upper Province. Congress, which claimed to be a secular party, was able to secure less than 1% votes of Muslims.
Muslim League had one word manifesto of “Pakistan”

The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma was appointed Viceroy of India on February 21, 1947.
The first man Lord Mountbatten met after arrival was Hindu Raja of Bikaneer and the second Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru whom he asked about Mr Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Nehru informed him,
“Mr Jinnah entered politics very late. Earlier he was of no significance. Lord Wavell (Viceroy 1943 to Feb 20, 1947) committed a big mistake of making Muslim League part of the cabinet. Muslim League creates obstacles in the work of national interest.” Later, on advice of Mr Nehru, Lord Mountbatten appointed as his advisor Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon, *a stanch Hindu member of Congress*.
Chief Minister of Assam, Gopi Chand wrote to high command of Gongress, “Rama O Rama! whole of Bengal, Assam, Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Frontier Province will become invincible castle of Islam.” His words were: ”رام اے رام ۔ يہ تو ايک ناقابل تسخير اسلامی قلعہ بن گيا ۔ پورا بنگال ۔ آسام ۔ پنجاب ۔ سندھ ۔ بلوچستان ۔ صوبہ سرحد”۔
During next meeting to assess progress on Cabinet Mission Plan, Nehru sabotaging the plan announced, “Congress is not bound by any condition and may change the Plan at the time of forming the cabinet of India”.

Mr Jinnah was a shrewd person. He presented the formula of Independent Pakistan.

On advice of Mr Krishna Menan, in complete disregard of the joint agreement of division on the basis of provinces, Lord Mountbatten announced on June 3, 1947 the Partition Plan on basis of districts.

Behaviour of All India Congress

Indian National Congress was a brainchild of British Rulers of India. It was founded on 28 December 1885 by 72 individuals with the active help by A.O Hume, a retired British officer and was said to be a ‘representative’ party for the people of the Indian sub-continent. Indian National Congress was in fact created to keep Muslims subjugated. From the very start the Congress had shown its clear interest to safeguard the rights of Hindus, alone. Some of the Congress leaders openly adopted policy to establish Hindu Raj in the sub-continent.

The Muslims of India were greatly disappointed by the anti-Muslim stance that the Congress had adopted. The events following the partition of Bengal. Urdu-Hindi controversy strengthened the desire of the Muslims to organize themselves politically as a separate community. The birth of All India Muslim League at Dacca came as an expression of that desire for which a resolution was passed on 30th December 1906 by 3,000 delegates of Muslims from all over India. The resolution was presented by Nawab Salimullah Khan and seconded by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar and Maulana Zafar Ali.

Syed Ameer Ali organized the branch of Muslim league at London, the inaugural meeting for which was held on 6th May 1908, at London Caxton Hall. It was participated by the Muslims and those British people who favoured their view point.

Mr Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who was in England, was approached by Muslim League leaders to return to India.
He was elected President of All India Muslim League in 1933

The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was drafted between 22nd to 24th March 1940, by the 25-member Working Committee of the All India Muslim League. It was presented by Maulvi A K Fazlul Haq and formally adopted by the Muslim League membership at its general session on 23 March 1940 at Minto Park (now Allama Iqbal Park), in Lahore. This resolution asked for greater Muslim autonomy within British India. However, later most people thought of this as a call for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan.

Today, the resolution’s importance is remembered in Pakistan, by Minar-e-Pakistan that stands in the Allama Iqbal Park, Lahore.
In the words of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah: “Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations that are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state. Muslims are a nation according to any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people”.

How Britons Entered India

Indian empire under rule of Moghul Emperor Muhi Uddin Muhammad Aurangzeb (1618-1707) included Qandhar (Afghanistan) in the West to Bengal in the East and Kabul (Afghanistan) plus Indus valley in the North to Kaveri deep in the South. (Aurangzeb and Alamgir are titles. Aurangzeb means Ornament of Throne and Alamgir means the great man.)
British East India Company (established in England during 1600) obtained permission for establishing a trade office in Southern India from government of Aurangzeb Alamgir. After about half a century, the company started bringing in British Army personnel in the name of company security and started secretively getting support of Hinu tribes against the Muslim government. Their clandestine activities got accelerated when Mughal government became weak after death of Aurangzeb. By 1750 East India Company had established an army of its own. During 1757, East India Company with the help of Hinu Rajas and a traitor, Mir Jafar defeated Muslim army in Bengal. Later, British East India Company defeated Muslim army in South India with help of Hinu Rajas and a traitor, Mir Sadiq, and established their rule in Bengal and South India. With the decline of Mughal Emperors, East India Company accelerated its clandestine operations and finally attacked the capital, Delhi of Mughal Empire in 1857. In 1858, the reign of government came directly under British Crown.

Hindus accepted the British Rule but Most of the Muslims of India considered them foreign intruders as such killing of Muslims continued. All scholars, people of special skills, clergy and influential people were killed by the British Forces, and their properties confiscated.
Masajid (Mosques) used to be centres of learning not only religion but also mathematics, physics, chemistry, history, geography etc. These institutions were discontinued, and their properties confiscated. Killing of Muslims and confiscation of their properties continued. As a result, properties of our ancestors spread over several villages in Punjab were confiscated and some of them were killed during 1870s. My great-grandfather escaped with his wife and little kids and took refuge in State Jammu and Kashmir. Youngest child with him was an infant, my Dada (paternal grandfather).